History of the Netherlands

de Republic of Amsterdam Radio

The incredible journey of the world’s most influential swamp and those who call it home.

Episodios

BONUS: Myths and Legends of the Low Countries

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The Low Countries have long held mystery and intrigue for people around the world. Over thousands of years, innumerable myths and legends have sprung out of this small corner of Europe, while many more have been created by bemused foreigners looking in from outside. There is a unique quality to this busy, little, misty swampland that has long allowed imaginations to run wild and fantasy to be embraced in the forms of stories, songs, jokes and activities. In this episode of the Low Countries Radio, we are going to explore some of the folk tales from the Low Countries. As such, we will encounter giants, magical horses, elven knights and, yes, even a boy putting his finger in a dyke to prevent a flood. So let’s go live in fantasy and wind our way through the deep, dark forest where myths and legends lay, lurking in the shadows, waiting for us. Do you want to know more about Flemish and Dutch history and culture? Visit www.the-low-countries.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

40 - The Rhyme and Unreason of Treason

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After being forced to sign the Treaty of Arras in late 1482, Maximilian of Habsburg found his authority in Flanders challenged by a group of powerful nobles and patrician merchants from the big cities of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres. Using their social, economic and political clout, as well as the physical possession of Maximilian’s children, an alternative government was set up in Flanders in the form of a regency council, allied to the French king. But when Louis XI died in 1483, and the rest of the Low Countries decided they preferred Maximilian to the Flemish, the course was, once again, set for full scale revolt, open warfare and Flemish cities fighting against the man who claimed the right to rule them. Welcome back to your favourite podcast, the History of Flemish revolts. With thanks to Bart van Leeuwen, Churchill Moulder, Sander van Hooff, B. Roberts and Tina Forbush for their Patreon support. PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit podcastchoices.com/adchoices

01 - 99% of Dutch History

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We set off on an epic journey to explore the history of a small piece of land in the northwest part of the European continent known as ‘the lowlands’, which roughly includes today’s Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and bits of northern France. This episode will take us from so called “pre-history” to around the Roman era. So strap in while we deal with 99% of Dutch history... that’s most of it. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-1-99-of-dutch-history Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

02 - What Have the Romans Ever Done for Us?

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Throughout history, the Low Countries would often be defined by their interactions with great powers nearby. This began when the Original Superpower™, the Romans, decided the border of their empire would be the Rhine river, running right through the heart of our beloved swamp. One lowlander tribe, the Batavians, would learn the hard way that when in Rome, it’s better to just do as the Romans do. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

03 - Illuminating the Dark Ages

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A common misperception is that once Roman influence ended by 476 CE, the European continent went into a dark abyss with very little happening until the Italian Renaissance in the the 14th century. Most historians today would most likely disagree with this notion, as do we, because many important and enlightening things were happening in Europe, including our little part, the Lowlands. This episode is all about monks, migrations and Merovingians. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-3-illuminating-the-dark-ages Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

04 - Charles in Charge

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In the latter half of the 8th century, events and circumstances around Europe become vastly influenced by a man who ruled a huge empire from (right next to) the lowlands. This man is the reason why the name Charles - which if you think about it really hard is actually a pretty weird name - is anywhere near as populous as it is today. But this Charles was, apparently, greater than the rest, and so he gets to be called Charlemagne - Charles the Great.  Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-4-charles-in-charge Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

05 - Welcome to Family Feudalism

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The disintegration of Charlemagne’s empire at the end of the 9th century left the lowlands part of a larger entity, Lotharingia, wedged between two much more powerful kingdoms, East and West Francia. If you were an ambitious noble, controlling one of the many small, swampy territories and you wished to move yourself up into a more prominent position, what would you do? Well, what lots of them chose to do was switch allegiances to and fro between the great powers on either side whenever they deemed it politically necessary and beneficial to do so. Welcome to Family Feudalism! Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-5-welcome-to-family-feudalism Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

06 - Ploughin’ Forward

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The last few episodes have focused heavily on the “Game of Thrones” layer of history; that’s to say, nobles killing each other. As exciting as it's been, only a tiny minority of people who lived around the end of the first millennium of the Common Era would have been directly concerned with those kinds of conflicts. For most people in the lowlands, it didn’t matter who their count or duke or emperor was. For them, life was nasty, brutish and short, and involved an overwhelming amount of backbreaking manual labour. But an agricultural revolution was about to change life for these peasants forever. So let’s keep ploughin’ forward with the History of the Netherlands. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-6-ploughin-forward Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

07 - Getting Down in Town

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Freed from the need to be working the land due to the improvements in agriculture discussed in episode 6, people in the low countries began congregating in urban centres. They developed new skills and began manufacturing goods. Artisans like smiths, woodworkers, weavers, embroiderers and textile workers suddenly possessed talents with great economic value. Now, for the first time, members of the common class were able to put their fingers onto the scales of power, and begin to balance it back in their favour by making city charters. But the creation of a new body politic in the 11th century would not be without its adversaries, nor without its consequences. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/historyofthenetherlands/episode-7-getting-down-in-town Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

08 - Draining the Swamp (or, The Secret Soggy Story of Sphagnum)

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We break away from the main chronology of the series a little bit, to zoom out and re-focus on one particular topic: how exactly, in the space of roughly 500 years, this empty swamp land was transformed into one of the most densely populated places on the planet. But in order to do that, we’re going to have to focus on one of the most underrated, and unappreciated of mother nature’s gifts. And that is something called sphagnum; more commonly known as peat moss. It's time to drain the swamp. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-8-draining-the-swamp Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

09 - Weaving Our Way Through Flanders (A Wooly Good Episode)

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Today we are taking you on an epic adventure, being passed from hand to hand and from group to group, throughout medieval Flanders, as wool. You read that correctly. Wool. Yes, it might seem strange at first, imagining being an inanimate object. But wool was the most important commodity in Flanders during the 13th century, and the process through which it was transformed from a raw material to a finished piece of fine cloth will take you through every layer of the new urban society that was developing in the low countries. You’re going to be dyed, spun, woven, beaten, pissed on and strung up on tenterhooks. It’s gonna be fun, trust us.  Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-9-weaving-our-way-through-flanders-a-wooly-good-episode Many thanks to our patrons on Patreon: Michael Smith Johannes Knöbl Todd Fox Mary Virginia Avery You can support our show by visiting https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

10 - The Battle of the Golden Spurs (A "Good Day" to Die Hard)

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In the late 1200s many of the trends and forces that we've been exploring, such as feudalism, urbanisation and industrialisation erupted in a spectacular clash between Flanders and France. Flanders was totally annexed by their larger and more powerful neighbour, but a rebellion stirred that would result in a brutal massacre and an unlikely battlefield victory in a pile of mud, flesh and golden spurs just outside of the town of Kortrijk. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-10-the-battle-of-the-golden-spurs Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

11 - The Murder of Floris V

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Today we are going to break the pattern of the last few episodes and make the outrageous move of not talking about Belgium. I know, crazy right. We’ve gone on a lot about the social changes which were taking place throughout the southern lowlands over the last few episodes, so now we move back north and focus our attention on how the area which, after various disastrous floods cut it off from Friesland proper during the 13th century, became known as West-Friesland, and which would by the end of that century be conquered and subdued by the warlords of the House of Holland. We’re going to cover anti-kings, people falling through ice, a son’s revenge of his father’s murder, peasant uprisings, backstabbing nobles, kidnappings and mob violence. Never a dull moment in our little swamp! SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-11-the-murder-of-floris-v Patreon: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands Twitter: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

12 - Jews, Pestilence and the Apocalyptic 14th Century

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At this stage in our journey through the History of the Netherlands we have emerged into the 1300s: a century which for a long time, has been seen as the most awful century to have been alive in western Europe. Warfare and plague led to an almost complete breakdown of order in the social fabric. Estimates vary and depend on the region, but in less than a decade up to half of the European population died of the black death after it first struck in 1348, before returning again later in the century and wiping out another huge chunk. And as bad as all that may be, it would have been even worse if you were a Jew. Because even though you had to live through the same hardships as everyone else, and were exposed to the same pestilence that could destroy your family, there was a very high chance that you were going to be blamed for the black plague and subsequently burned to death as punishment. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-12-jews-pestilence-and-the-apocalyptic-14th-century Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

14 - The Joys of Succession in Brabant

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By the mid-1300s the fractured mini-states of the lowlands were being pulled apart by competing political and economic interests, warfare, dynastic struggles and the Black Death. The resulting instability meant that relations between the rulers and the ruled were constantly tested as the various layers of society tried to protect their interests in such perilous times. Whereas in Flanders this had led to bloody conflict between the Count and the cities, in other parts of the lowlands different methods were used to determine what this relationship should be. At a magnificent ceremony in Brabant in 1356, a new Duchess and Duke signed a document that did exactly this, confirming certain rights of their subjects, including the right to disobey the ruler if they failed to uphold their end of the bargain. Although this so-called ‘Joyous Entry’ would be ignored almost from the moment of its signing, it would continue to have symbolic significance throughout the History of the Netherlands.  With special thanks to our new Patreon subscribers: Nicholas Birns, Sairam Manda, Steven Straatemans, Joe Watts and Julian's dad Michael Smith! SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-14-the-joys-of-succession-in-brabant PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

15 - Fuelling the Flames of Frisian Freedom

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Friesland was an autonomous anomaly in Europe, free from the feudal obligations that had so deeply entrenched themselves in society everywhere else. For years the Frisians just rocked along, doing their own thing, which generally involved something to do with cows. We have largely avoided talking about them for a few episodes, but now is the time in our journey through the History of the Netherlands to look at exactly what the Frisians were doing in the 1300s that was not cow related. Put simply, for the first forty-four years of the fourteenth century forces and factions fought and feuded in Friesland, fueling the flames of fearless Frisian freedom fighters. In 1345, Frisian farmers and fishermen on the eastern side of the Zuiderzee would meet and defeat the Count of Holland in battle at Stavoren, an event that would unite people in East-Friesland and ensure that the autonomy they enjoyed known as “Friese Vrijheid”, Frisian freedom, would continue for another 150 years. With thanks to James Lovett, Clay Batley and Jan Kouwenberg for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/historyofthenetherlands/episode-15-fuelling-the-flames-of-frisian-freedom PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

16 - The Fishy Tale of Willem Beukelszoon

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In the latter half of the 14th century, a series of technological developments as well as ripe social and economic conditions saw the foundations being laid for the future Dutch takeover of the northern European herring industry. Up until then, the herring trade had been dominated by the Danes, Swedes and the Hanseatic towns of northern Germany and the Baltic Sea, with Dutch and other European consumers happily importing salted herring from those places. Within two hundred years this situation would be completely reversed; the fishing and exporting of salted herring would be one of the cornerstones of the Dutch economy and Dutch cured herring would come to reach dinner tables all across Europe. This remarkable reversal of fortunes was so integral to the emergence of Dutch national identity, that it required its own position within the narrative of the emerging Dutch state. From the 17th century onwards a myth was perpetuated which credited it all to a man called Willem Beukelszoon of Biervliet. He was a humble herring fisherman who, at some point in the 14th century apparently discovered the process of gibbing, which made this whole turn around possible. Although this legend has been debunked by modern historians, its perpetuation demonstrates the importance which the so-called “royal herring” enjoyed in the creation of a Dutch national identity. So in this episode of the History of the Netherlands, we are once again going to depart from the power games of the nobility, and the wranglings of urban elite and worker’s guilds, and focus on something even more slippery, the herring. With thanks to Nynke van Gent, Randy Gout, Marko de Weerdt and Jeroen Peeters-Panman for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-16-the-fishy-tale-of-willem-beukelszoon PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

17 - The Bold and the Looter's Rule

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Philip the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, kicked off a dynasty that would forever change the Low Countries. After his marriage to Margaret of Flanders in 1369, Philip would prove himself to be a formidable opponent to anyone playing the game of politics and power in western Europe. He generally did this by using diplomacy instead of the sword. Despite his adventurous and super trendy epithet suggesting otherwise, he was more willing to boldly give lavish gifts of wine and expensive ornaments, in order to charm the pants off anyone he was trying to manipulate, than to raise an army and go marching boldly forth. By showing magnanimity in victory after quelling an uprising in Ghent in the 1380s, by the end of the 14th century Philip the Bold was able to bring a modicum of stability to rebellious Flanders and begin the process of centralising power in the low countries under a single ruler: himself and his successors, the Dukes of Burgundy. Philip would create what would go down in history as the Burgundian Netherlands. With thanks to Samuel Dalcin da Anunciação, Carol Agle, Nicholas Tishler and Jeremy Heeringa and Harry Berkowitz and his class for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-17-the-bold-and-the-looters-rule PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

Interview: Hiding in the Wolf's Lair

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For the last 12 months we have been working on an artwork for Amsterdam Light Festival #8. The theme this year is 'Disrupt', so our piece is based on what we believe to be the most disruptive event in Amsterdam's history, the Second World War. During the occupation, around 250-300 people hid in Amsterdam Artis Zoo to escape from Nazi persecution. Among them were Jews, resistance fighters, young men who didn't want to get sent to forced labour camps in Germany, and even entire families. Since audio is a terrible medium to explain a light art installation, in this episode we dive into the story of Amsterdam's zoo during the Second World War and the people who managed to survive by hiding there. To guide us through this story, we interviewed the former director of Artis, Maarten Frankenhuis, who wrote Overleven in de Dierentuin (Surviving in the Zoo), the definitive account of Artis zoo during the war. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/hiding-in-the-wolfs-lair Hiding in the Wolf's Lair is a joint work between Republic of Amsterdam Radio and Nomad Tinker House. www.nomadtinkerhouse.com With many thanks to Maarten Frankenhuis. www.maartenfrankenhuis.nl Check out our artwork https://amsterdamlightfestival.com/en/artworks/hiding-in-the-wolfs-lair Go on a tour of Amsterdam Light Festival with Those Dam Boat Guys: https://www.thosedamboatguys.com/amsterdam-light-festival Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

13 - The Brewer of Ghent

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The Flemish victory over the French at the Battle of the Golden Spurs led to a vast change in social structures, but that battle did not finish or solve the issues between Flanders, France and England. By the 1320s Flanders had still been in near constant warfare for decades and was, frankly, in a state of chaos. The Count of Flanders had lost much control, guilds had gained power in towns so as to compete with the urban elite and each other, and people in the countryside were often having to feed everybody while not enjoying the benefits of being a filthy-rich cloth merchant. Chaos, as we know, is a ladder, and a man named Jacob van Artevelde was going to climb it to the top. With thanks to Robbert Ricci and Mark van der Laan for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-13-the-brewer-of-ghent PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

18 - To Boldly Go For Brabant

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Philip the Bold and his wife Margaret ruled Flanders for twenty years from 1384-1404 and during that time would expand their family’s rule into Limburg, as well as set their successors up to rule Brabant, Holland, zeeland, Hainault and other low country territories as well. The manner in which Philip, trod this treacherous path, in particular his giving of lavish gifts and making steady and long term alliances, would set the tone for a dynasty that was going to contribute so much to the emergence of a lowland culture and identity. With thanks to Cory ter Smitte, Benjamin Forsyth, Bengt-Åke Andersson, Anonymous, Larry Tanz, Smutticus, Mees Dekker, Kyle Buis, Daniel Ruff and Hanneke van den Boom for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-18-to-boldly-go-for-brabant PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

19 - Take it on the Othée Side

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On September 23, 1408, a combined allied army of the duke of Burgundy, the count of Holland, and the bishop-elect of Liège marched against the people of Liege, who had erupted into an all out revolt against their ruler. At the Battle of Othée, the Liégeois were utterly crushed and in the aftermath the citizens of Liège were made to pay dearly by the victorious nobles, with the town stripped of its privileges and draconian punishments placed upon it. The retribution was so harsh that the bishop-elect of Liège earned the name “John the Pitiless”. But the real triumph belonged to another John, “the Fearless”, Duke of Burgundy, and Count of Flanders and Artois, who with this battle capped off a series of power plays which began with the very public assassination of his biggest political rival in France, Louis of Orleans. John the Fearless asserted himself as the dominant power broker in the low countries, showing the ever restless towns what might happen to them should they rebel against his authority. With thanks to D de Jonge, Sérgio Teixeira da Silva and Zombles Allegoy for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-19-take-it-on-the-othee-side PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

20 - Bonds Broken by Battle, Bite and Bridge

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At the end of the first decade of the 1400s, everything seemed to be going peachy for John the Fearless, the Duke of Burgundy. He had resisted a large rebellion and maintained his centralising influence over most of the low-countries as well as nurtured and made official the alliance his father had created with the other major powerbase in the low countries, the Count of Holland. By the end of the second decade of the 1400s, however, fate, in the forms of an English army with long-bows, a mad dog, and a treacherous bridge, would intervene and John would be dead. With their departure from the scene, the fate of the low countries would once again be thrown into the realms of uncertainty. With thanks to Pieter Wiemken, Mark Lemke, Thomas Davern and Kiri for becoming Patreon subscribers. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-20-bonds-broken-by-battle-bite-and-bridge PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

21 - Jacqueline of Bavaria

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On his death-bed in 1417, William VI, Count of Hainault, Holland and Zeeland, named his daughter Jacqueline of Bavaria as his heir. Given the financial, political and military might of these three territories, this elevated Jacqueline to an extremely powerful position within the low countries, and despite being only 15 years old, she seems to have been up to the task. Jacqueline was not afraid to take bold and risky moves to protect her own interests, often in defiance of those who would use her as their own political pawn. Unfortunately for her, however, being born a woman in a male dominated society meant that Jacqueline’s inheritance was instantly challenged by her uncle, John the Pitiless, bishop-elect of Liege. Her marriage to the new Duke of Brabant, John IV, proved to be a disaster and did nothing to help her defend her domains from her avaricious uncle. Despite a spectacular attempt to return to the low countries at the head of an English army, when all was said and done, Jacqueline would be brought undone not by her uncle, but by her cousin, the new Duke of Burgundy; he who despite his arguably obvious non-goodness, would become known as Philip the Good. With thanks to Mike Huitema and Nynke van Gent for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-21-jacqueline-of-bavaria PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

22 - Escaping Social Isolation with a Miraculous Journey to the 1420s

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As much as we may like to imagine that those at the top of the social and political ladders - the kings, queens, counts, and dukes, politicians, merchants and bankers - are the people who drive history onwards, it is everyday people that truly live and experience most of what happens in history, whether or not their names go in the record books. In this episode we imagine the extraordinary life of a farm-boy from Kennemerland who, as the youngest, must venture out to find work and a life beyond his parent’s farmstead. He has benefited from the educational system set up by the Brethren of the Common Life, a lay-religious community, and is able to read, giving him an advantage in everyday life. Being the 1400s he is faithful to the church and, from a young age, determined to make a pilgrimage to the holy town of Amstelredam. With thanks to Ally Smith and Thijs Castelein for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-22-escaping-social-isolation-with-a-miraculous-journey-to-the-1420s PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

23 - Overachieving Overijsselers and Holland versus Hansa

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At the beginning of the 15th century, towns in the Oversticht, the region which mostly makes up today’s modern province of Overijssel but at the time was controlled by the prince-bishop of Utrecht, reached their medieval zenith largely because of their involvement and affiliation with the Hanseatic League. Strategically positioned along the IJssel river, which connected the Zuiderzee to the Rhine, towns such as Deventer, Kampen and Zwolle were able to take part in the sprawling trade network of northern German cities which dominated trade over the North and Baltic seas. But although the trading connections brought increased power and wealth to the region, it was also here that a new spiritual movement known as Modern Devotion was founded by a man called Geert Groote, who rejected the materialism and excesses of the Church and its clergy and called for sober, inward, religious reflection. His followers, known as the Brothers and Sisters of the Common Life, would spread throughout the low countries and parts of Germany creating schools, copying and producing books, and increasing literacy levels throughout society. But the privileged position that the Overijssel towns enjoyed was to be broken when the rising towns of Holland, particularly Amsterdam, went to war with the Hanseatic League and through piratical actions broke its near monopoly on the trade of fish, lumber and grain from the Baltics. From this, Holland would emerge as an even greater regional power. With thanks to Jeffrey Babcock and Altcode for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-23-overacheiving-overijsselers-and-holland-versus-hansa PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

24 - The Lavish and the Revolting

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The court of Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, became widely known as the most extravagant and luxurious in Europe during the almost 50 years of his reign between 1419 and 1467. Using pomp, ceremony and patronage of the arts, an image was created of Philip as a wise, just and fair ruler; the “grand duke of the west”. During the celebrations of Philip the Good’s marriage to Isabella of Portugal in Bruges, in 1430, he created the Order of the Golden Fleece; a military group that celebrated the chivalric tradition and served to add prestige and honour to the immense power that Philip had acquired in his schemes of territorial expansion. The creation of such an order was part of a greater image of courtly splendour, festivity and spiritual devotion that Philip established in order to validate his rule and create stronger bonds of identity with his subjects. Even when those subjects went into rebellion against him, which Bruges did in 1436, his subjugation of them would include using these elements to reinforce their relationship. With thanks to Mike Corcoran, Berry Wursten, Andrew and Taco de Vries for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-24-the-lavish-and-the-revolting PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

BONUS: Jan van Eyck: The Man and the Myth

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Jan van Eyck, one of the Low Countries' most famous artists, lived through an extraordinary period in history, between the 1390s and the 1440s. Although much about the early Netherlandish painter’s life is completely unknown, the details which do remain provide tantalising glimpses into an artistic and technical talent, who was both socially and politically capable enough to be able to ingratiate himself within the highest ranks of power in his time. Van Eyck’s cultural influence has continued in the five and a half centuries since his death. In Flanders, the year 2020 is being celebrated as the Year of Van Eyck. So to pay homage, in this episode we will explore the life and works of Jan van Eyck and the mystery surrounding the theft of part of his most famous work, the Ghent altarpiece. Visit www.the-low-countries.com for the high road to Dutch/Flemish culture! Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

25 - Pheasant Fealty (Stuck in the Middle mit Vous)

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After the Treaty of Arras in 1435, Philip the Good’s international policies had to overcome several hurdles if he was to achieve his aim of obtaining as much territory and autonomy as he could. Despite his reconciliation with the king of France, the two cousins would continually be at each other’s throats and on the brink of breaking into warfare again. In 1441 Philip became the regent for Luxembourg and this irked the dignity of certain powerbrokers in the Holy Roman Empire who had their own eyes on the domain. Because Philip was a French prince who ruled imperial territories, he had to rely on his usual tactics of over the top extravagance and relationship building to navigate through the political awkwardness that this caused. He successfully made moves designed to maintain his autonomy as a prince of Christendom and from the 1440s harboured the idea of elevation to a kingship. This would come close to materialising several times, however, as has been the way since Charlemagne’s empire was split up between three brothers all those centuries ago, Philip found that being stuck between France and the German Empire left little room for absolute low country autonomy. With thanks to Demetrio Munoz, Leonieke Aalders, and Iosa Mac Chrisdein for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-25-pheasant-fealty PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

31 - A Luckless Legate in Liège

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At the beginning of 1468, after having crushed a second uprising in Liège in the space of two years, Charles the Bold set about the all-important task of figuring out to whom he was going to marry. At the same time, he was once again being dragged into affairs in France as petulant nobles there began once more to grumble militarily about his nemesis, French king, Louis XI. Although Charles and Louis’ enmity stretched back to before either of them had taken the reigns of power, it had become focused on the region of the Somme towns, which Charles’ father had remarkably ceded to Louis before his death, but which Charles had re-taken possession of in the treaty of Conflans. While preparing to go to war against France once again, Liège erupted once more into revolt. A papal legate named Onofrio de Santa Croce was sent to Liège in order to try to find a peaceful resolution to this on-going social unrest, and although he did a remarkable job in trying to find a pathway through the murkiness, in the end he was unsuccessful. On October 30, 1468, Charles the Bold, accompanied by a no doubt unhappy French King, Louis XI, would begin a final sack of Liège which would see the city burn for 7 weeks. With thanks to Stefan Campmans, Paul Trufasu and Matthew Kocian for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-31-a-luckless-legate-in-liege PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

32 - Charles, King of Burgundy?

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Charles the Bold inherited from his predecessors a lust for territorial expansion. When an old conflict in Guelders reared its head in 1468, Charles put himself in position to intervene there in much the way he had in Liège. Not just satisfied with this, he also sent a strongly worded letter to the power-brokers of Friesland, suggesting that they should think about accepting him, the Count of Holland, as their rightful ruler. Aaah, remember the days of haughty princes threatening Frisians with subjugation? Well, they’re back! By 1473 Charles’ army was in Guelders and threatening Friesland. Now, more regions of the Low Countries would be exposed to the process of Burgundian centralisation, which Charles ramped up by establishing the Parlement of Mechelen. Charles had become so powerful that he had started making eyes at not only a royal title, but an imperial one. In Triers in late 1473 Charles went to meet the emperor and, to all onlookers, it was pretty clear that he was going to leave this meeting with a crown on his head. Spoiler alert: he wouldn’t. With thanks to Jos van Ommeren, Martha Droge, Saskia Giraud, Ruben Koops and Chuck the Monk for their kind donations to the show. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-32-charles-king-of-burgundy PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

33 - No More Mr Neuss Guy

por Republic of Amsterdam Radio

After being rebuffed in his royal ambitions at Trier in 1473, Charles the Bold became embroiled in a series of power struggles with neighbouring imperial lands during the final years of his life. In Upper Alsace, which the Duke of Austria, Sigismund, had mortgaged to him, Charles installed a man named Peter von Hagenbach as his bailiff, whose tyrannical tendencies united a coalition of Swiss and Alsatian towns which teamed up with Sigismund, forming an anti-Burgundian alliance called the League of Constance. This coalition set about rejecting and ejecting the Burgundians from Upper Alsace. Basically, conditions conspired to continuously concern Charles and the League of Constance would contemptuously constrain his constant compulsions for control over consecutively connected constituencies. He also declared himself protector of Cologne, which was in revolt against its prince-bishop, and set about laying siege to the rebellious town of Neuss. All of this so worried important sectors of the imperial nobility that war was declared on the Duke of Burgundy by the Emperor. Charles found himself faced with enemies on all fronts and after almost a year of laying siege to Neuss, was forced to abandon it without success. His finances were in tatters and his prestige was diminished, but still, Charles had high hopes that he could turn his fortunes around.  With thanks to Job Mantz, maarten, Olaf, and Mehmet Baran for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-33-no-more-mr-neuss-guy PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

34 - Returned to a Dream (An Unfancy Death at Nancy)

por Republic of Amsterdam Radio

The final two years of Charles the Bold’s life would see him achieve one of his life’s ambitions, uniting his northern and southern domains as one continuous territory, before suffering a hat-trick of defeats at the hands of the Swiss, which would leave him unrecognisably dead, naked and half-eaten in a frozen pool of water. Having come to peace terms with the Emperor when abandoning the siege of Neuss in mid-1475, Charles turned his attention to his plans with Edward IV of England to jointly conquer France. Louis XI successfully bribed Edward, however, foiling this plan. Charles instead decided to go and crush those who had crossed him by conquering Lorraine and getting his grip on Savoy, from which he could invade Switzerland. This was a great idea in theory, but his own infamous lack of mercy provoked a stronger-than-expected unity amongst his enemies, which compounded the financial problems he was facing after years of constant military campaigns. Defeats at Grandson, Murten and finally Nancy, saw the past glories of the House of Valois-Burgundy reversed and, as he was presciently warned by one of his advisors before crushing Liege, returned to a dream. Perhaps a more accurate description, though, is that they were thrust into a nightmare. With thanks to Ilya Brodsky, Jay Slot, and Eric & Sammy Hansen for their Patreon support. SHOW NOTES: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/episode-34-returned-to-a-dream-an-unfancy-death-in-nancy PATREON: https://www.patreon.com/historyofthenetherlands TWITTER: https://www.twitter.com/historyofNL Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

BONUS: Dark Chocolate: Amsterdam, Slavery and Chocolate

por Republic of Amsterdam Radio

This is a special episode we were invited to make by Tony's Chocolonely, an Amsterdam-based chocolate company which is on a mission to eradicate modern slavery and make 100% slave-free the norm in chocolate.  Earlier this year, the Chief Chocolate Officer of Tony's Chocolonely, Henk Jan Beltman, was arrested for spray painting a Black Lives Matter slogan next to a statue of one of the most notorious Dutch colonial figures, Jan Pieterszoon Coen.  The statue stands on the corner of the Beurs van Berlage, an iconic building in the centre of Amsterdam, and one in which Tony's Chocolonely have set up shop today. When speaking to the media after being released without charge, Beltman said "Jan Pieterzoon Coen was one of the largest slave traders in our history, which must be indicated with such a statue. We cannot rewrite history and I am normally not fond of graffiti, but with this action I hope to keep the social debate going.”  To this end, Tony's approached us and asked us to create a podcast for their staff which would help them better understand the historic connections Amsterdam has with both the chocolate industry and the slave trade. Amsterdam is a city which has been involved in the cocoa trade and chocolate production almost since the bean’s first introduction into Europe. It is in Amsterdam that the history of modern economics, slavery and chocolate intersect. Thanks to Belinda at Team Tony's for her help in creating this project. Show notes: https://www.republicofamsterdamradio.com/episodes/historyofthenetherlands/bonus-dark-chocolate-amsterdam-slavery-and-chocolate Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices

BONUS: Additional Traditional Edition

por Republic of Amsterdam Radio

Why do the Dutch hang school bags on flagpoles, place giant blow-up dolls on their front lawn and have clocks without numbers in their pubs? And why do the Flemings celebrate newborns by eating ‘poop beans’? In this podcast, we are delving into some of the unique and peculiar customs, social norms and rituals of Flanders and the Netherlands and see the different ways in which these traditions have evolved over time. We follow the trajectory of traditions a typical life would encounter, from the cradle to the grave. Do you want to know more about Flemish and Dutch history and culture? Visit www.the-low-countries.com. Learn more about your ad choices. Visit megaphone.fm/adchoices